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Library of Congress

Nagasaki was a Japanese port with a Portuguese and European influence. It is located on the bay of the Island of Kyushu. The city area is confined by two rivers that form a valley, with the port resting on the natural bay. It was one of two supply ports for food and water and a place where sailors could go ashore. In 1819, the "Syren" captained by Frederick Coffin of Nantucket, went to Japan and returned to London with 346 tons of sperm oil.

Also in Japan was the port of Naha, located on the Island of Okinawa. The port is densely populated along the coast, while the interior landscape is mountainous, with soft ground, a rainy season, and seismic activity. It was a major trading center, dating back to the 11th century, with a large open-air market and two forts for protection. The United States and the Kingdom of Loo Choo had an agreement concerning trading rights, fees, wood, and water, making this a place of refuge for whaling vessels.

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